|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 196-198
Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals
Bander Al-Abdulwahhab1, Saad Al-Nazhan2
1 Consultant and Assistance Professor, Restorative Dentistry, Royals Clinics, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, Division of Endodontics, King Saud University, College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
|Date of Web Publication||26-Aug-2015|
Department of RDS, Division of Endodontics, King Saud University, College of Dentistry, P.O. Box 60169, Riyadh
Source of Support: Nil., Conflict of Interest: None
Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.
Keywords: Mandibular second molar, root canal morphology, root canal treatment
|How to cite this article:|
Al-Abdulwahhab B, Al-Nazhan S. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals. Saudi Endod J 2015;5:196-8
| Introduction|| |
Long-term success of root canal therapy usually achieved if all root canals are located, cleaned, and filled. In addition, a thorough understanding of root canal anatomy and morphology is very important when practicing Endodontics. According to Slowey, mandibular premolars are considered to be the most difficult teeth to endodontically treat. This is mainly due to the difficulty of recognizing the anatomical variations of the root canal morphology. Several factors could contribute to the anatomical variations including ethnicity, age, and gender have been reported.,,, Presence of multiple canals and roots in mandibular premolars has been reported in numerous studies and reported cases.,,,,, Additional canals may be found radiographically, but often are detected only through thorough clinical investigation of the pulpal floor and the pulp chamber. The present case report describes a successful, nonsurgical root canal treatment of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals.
| Case Report|| |
A 37-year-old Sudanese man with a non-contributing medical history was referred to the Endodontic clinic from the screening clinic. The patient had traumatic occlusion. Clinical examination showed occlusal composite resin restoration on tooth #35. The tooth was sensitive to percussion and palpation and did not respond to pulp testing. Cold and electric pulp test revealed no response. Radiographic examination revealed normal periapical area and an irregular root morphology consisting of at least three distinct roots in the apical region [Figure 1]. A diagnosis of necrotic pulp with acute apical periodontitis was made. The tooth was anesthetized with 1.8 ml. of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and access opening was established under rubber dam isolation [Figure 2]a. The access was enlarged using Gates-Glidden burs (No. 3, 4, and 5). Four canals were negotiated. The pulp chamber was flushed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution to remove debris and necrotic tissue. RootZx (J. Morita Corp., Kyoto, Japan) apex locator was used to determine the correct working lengths, then a radiograph was obtained with four files in place to confirm that four separate canals were indeed present [Figure 2]b.
The canals were prepared with hand files (Flexofiles, Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to #30 and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution using crown-down technique. The root canals were dried with sterile paper points (Maillefer, Dentsply, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and filled with cold, laterally condensed gutta-percha (Maillefer, Dentsply, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and AH26 sealer (Maillefer, Dentsply, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The occlusal access opening was sealed temporarily with glassionomer cement. A final radiograph was taken [Figure 3].
| Discussion|| |
Root canals harbor different types of micro-organisms that usually colonize at the root canal wall of teeth with necrotic pulp. The necrotic tissue remnants and dentin serve as a sufficient environment for the establishment of bacterial growth., Thorough biomechanical instrumentation with the aid of sodium hypochlorite usually renders the root canal system of a tooth bacteria-free. Such treatment protocol was followed in the present case. A modified technique of root canal preparation using Gates Glidden burs for coronal flaring and a crown-down manner has been used in the present case.
Examination of the pulp chamber floor may offer clues to the location of orifices and to the type of canal systems present. Krasner and Rankow in a study of 500 pulp chambers demonstrated that definite patterns of the pulp chamber floor and wall anatomy exists.
Optimum opening of the access cavity has the advantages of reducing stress on the files used to shape and clean the root canal system. In addition, instrument fracture and canal transportation will be minimized. Furthermore, carrying out coronal flaring before proceeding into the apical regions of the root canal system will remove the majority of the infected tissue early in preparation and also prevent the inoculation of periapical tissues with bacteria that may be carried down the root canal system with hand files.,
An apex locator was used to estimate the root canal lengths prior to taking a working length estimation radiograph. The use of an apex locator improves the chances of estimating the correct lengthfirst time, especially when canals are likely to be superimposed on a radiograph. Depending on radiograph only in such a complex case is of rather limited value.
Mandibular premolars are the most difficult teeth to manage from the standpoint of endodontic treatment. They tend to have multiple root canals, apical deltas, and lateral canals, as well as relatively small access cavities and poor visualization opportunities. A clinician must be aware of possible anatomical variation of teeth undergoing endodontic treatment. A thorough knowledge of biology, physiology, and root canal anatomy and careful radiographic interpretation as well as proper access opening is very important for successful endodontic therapy.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]